Selection of varieties, reproduction and cultivation of edible honeysuckle in gardens and nurseries (part 2)



Gift of Siberia

Reproduction of honeysuckle - green cuttings

Berry ripening period honeysuckle edible coincides with such agrotechnical measures as green cuttings... It is the main and effective way of propagation of this culture.

Work on the reproduction of honeysuckle in this way is carried out at the VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin since the nineties of the last century, when the laying of mother plants began with varieties of the first generation (Blue spindle, Blue bird, Kamchadalka, Azure). At present, the establishment of uterine plantations with modern varieties has been carried out here.

The most important elements of the technology of green cuttings are the selection of the optimal cutting height of the bushes, which allows to achieve the maximum yield of green cuttings, as well as the development of the timing of cuttings, which are economically profitable for nursery culture. The growth of honeysuckle shoots in the central part of Russia ends by the middle of the first decade of June, when the optimal yield of green cuttings from the mother plant is achieved.

The main types of cultivation facilities for green cuttings of honeysuckle are hangar-type greenhouses, modern polycarbonate greenhouses, tunnels and boxes with an automatic irrigation system of the "Fog" type. Honeysuckle is an easily rooted crop. Despite this, the regenerative capacity may not be high. This is due not only to the varietal characteristics of the plant, but also, first of all, the timing of cuttings.

Many researchers recommend starting green propagation of honeysuckle when the first ripe berries appear. In the conditions of Michurinsk, where the VNIIS im. Michurin, this period begins on May 25. According to our experience, the most appropriate period for cuttings is the first decade of June, when the berries are fully ripe, and the productivity of mother plants reaches its peak. The rooting rate of green cuttings during this period exceeds 90%. In the earlier periods of cuttings, the regenerative capacity decreases by 10-15%. It is best to harvest cuttings early in the morning before the onset of heat or late in the evening, and in cool weather they can be harvested during the day.

Well-developed shoots of the current year with a diameter of 4-5 mm are cut from the mother bush, from its lower or lateral part. Cut them from 7 to 12 cm long so that there are at least two nodes (two pairs of leaves) and one internode. It is important that they have well-formed buds and leaf blades. The upper cut of the cutting is made horizontal, stepping back from the buds by 1-1.5 cm, and the lower cut is oblique. In cuttings obtained from the apical shoot, only the lower oblique cut is made. The lower leaves are removed, and the upper ones are shortened by half.

It is advisable to place the prepared cuttings for 8-10 hours with an oblique cut down in a solution of heteroauxin or another drug to stimulate root growth to a depth of 1.5 cm, but the leaves of the cuttings should not come into contact with this solution. Before planting, the cuttings must be thoroughly rinsed with water. Before this, it is advisable to shed the soil with manganese-sour potassium (0.2-0.5%).

Cuttings are planted in the ground vertically or obliquely at an angle of 45o to a depth of 4-6 centimeters. After planting, the soil around them is compacted with your fingers.

During rooting, cuttings receive water through the leaves, so their surface must be constantly moist. To do this, they are sprayed with a hand sprayer with a fine spray 5-6 times a day. It is important not to overmoisten the soil in which the cuttings are planted.

If there are a lot of cuttings, then they are planted in rows, maintaining a distance between the rows of 10 cm, and the cuttings are placed in a row every 6 cm, in a checkerboard pattern.

It will be much easier if you want to get not dozens, but only a few honeysuckle plants. In this case, the cuttings are rooted using cut-bottom plastic bottles. The stalk is rooted in the soil, the leaves are sprayed and covered with such a transparent plastic cap. It is easier to maintain a favorable microclimate there. Rooting of cuttings lasts from 10 days to 4 weeks. All this time, plants need to provide high humidity.

After rooting the cuttings, you can feed them for the first time with nitrogen fertilizers (urea or ammonium nitrate). The fertilizer dose should be three times lower than for adult plants. At the end of summer, the seedlings are fed again with potash-phosphorus fertilizers.

Rooted cuttings of edible honeysuckle in the first year remain in place of rooting. Then the rooted cuttings are dived and grown in the nursery within one to two years after the digging. Modern consumers know little about the quality indicators that two-year-old seedlings of edible honeysuckle should have. They are as follows: their height should not be less than 40 cm, the diameter of the root collar not less than 0.7 cm. The seedlings should have two or more branches, a well-developed root system. There should be no infection of plants with diseases and pests.

Honeysuckle can also be propagated by lignified cuttings, layering and dividing the bush, but the yield of planting material in these cases will be much lower.

The biological feature of honeysuckle is the autumn release of plants from a state of dormancy. This is observed during a warm autumn-winter period and late onset of frost. During such a period, flowers may bloom at the tops of the shoots, and part of the next year's harvest will be lost. In this regard, it is not recommended to grow honeysuckle in the south of Russia. Or you need to use varieties that are resistant to this negative trait.

Harvesting Honeysuckle

High and stable yields of honeysuckle directly depend on the growth activity of the bushes. By provoking the growth of annual branches with the use of nitrogen fertilizers during the period of the beginning of shoot growth, it is possible to increase the yield of the next year several times.

A characteristic feature of edible honeysuckle is that it gives the earliest berries. They come in various shapes - rounded, elongated - spindle-shaped, lumpy. Iago's color is mostly blue and purple with a touch. They taste a little like blueberries, while different varieties give berries of a sweet, sweet and sour taste or with bitterness, there are varieties with the aroma of strawberries, pineapple. And since they are not only tasty, but also have a large amount of vitamins and biologically active substances, helping to eliminate the vitamin hunger accumulated over the long winter months. For this, honeysuckle is edible and appreciated by gardeners who consume them fresh.

If we talk about the time of entry into fruiting, it should be noted that the varieties of the first generation, created by breeders in the 80-90s of the twentieth century, are characterized by a late return of the harvest after planting. When growing modern varieties, it is possible to obtain the first industrial crops in the fourth or fifth year after planting, which contributes to the payback of plantations already in the sixth or seventh year.

Collecting honeysuckle fruits is not difficult. By picking berries by hand, the picker can harvest 7-10 kg of berries per day, and using the method of shaking the berries onto plastic wrap, the daily harvest can be increased to 25-30 kg.

Dmitry Bryksin,
Senior Researcher
Department of Berry Crops FGBNU VNIIS them. Michurina,
candidate of agricultural sciences, member of ANIIR,
member of the All-Union Society of Geneticists and Breeders,
Russia, Michurinsk

Photo by the author




Honeysuckle - Vitamin Press

Many types of honeysuckle are very often bred in gardens as beautiful ornamental shrubs, well suited for groups, alleys and arbors. Russian species bloom in early summer, that is, in late May to mid-June. We will talk with you about Honeysuckle blue (Lonicera caerulea), which has many names, but is more often called Edible honeysuckle.

Blue honeysuckle berries. © Opiola Jerzy

Honeysuckle is an upright, highly branched shrub up to 2 m high with brown scaly bark and pubescent oblong leaves. Already in early May, beautiful yellow flowers appear on the bushes, attracting insects with their aroma. Flowering is extended in time for a whole month, which allows the bulk of flowers to avoid frost damage and ensures a stable annual yield. The berries are dark purple with a bluish bloom, have a thick coloring juice, which is reminiscent of blueberries, but their sizes and shapes on the bush are different, as a rule, the shape is oblong. The taste of the berries is sweet and sour, depending on the degree of ripeness.

Blue honeysuckle berries. © Aleksandra M.


How to grow honeysuckle from seeds

The main »Suburban area» Seedling »How to grow honeysuckle from seeds



Honeysuckle is a garden shrub. In central Russia, it bears fruit first: by mid-June, honeysuckle gives gardeners tasty fruits that taste comparable to strawberries.

This culture propagates by cuttings and seeds. Cutting is carried out according to the standard scheme, but propagation with the help of seeds can be carried out in two ways.

Honeysuckle propagation by green cuttings

More about them later. Seed germination time is three to four weeks. It is better to start germinating seeds before the start of the gardening season, since the seedlings will be very small at first, and they should be grown up in greenhouse conditions (in rooms or in a mini-greenhouse) before planting in open ground.

However, if you did not succeed in starting in advance, you should not despair either - honeysuckle grows well in the open field right away.

Difference with grafting

There are a few things to look out for when you decide to grow honeysuckle from seed.

  1. Up to two-thirds of seedlings grown from berry seeds will have all the virtues of their variety (for example, flavor shade or berry size). However, there will be no way to immediately distinguish them from seedlings that have lost varietal properties. Sometimes, as a result of growing from seeds, the berries become better, sometimes worse. So, if you want to 100% preserve all the characteristics of the mother plant, choose vegetative methods for propagation of honeysuckle - cuttings or layering, and not sowing.
  2. Plants from seeds begin to bear fruit in 4-5 years, while honeysuckle grown from cuttings will delight you with berries a year after rooting.
  3. Sowing honeysuckle is cheaper than buying cuttings. But this requires much more attention to the seedlings, especially in the early stages, before rooting.
  4. Sowing seeds can be carried out at any time of the year, grow honeysuckle and plant it in the garden.
  5. To get seeds, you just need to take the largest and ripe fruits from the bush.

Only the largest and ripe berries are suitable for obtaining seeds.

Seed propagation without seedlings

Planting takes place in June. You will need seeds from ripe honeysuckle berries. The fruits should be left in the sun for an hour. During this time, a piece of land is being prepared.

Honeysuckle seeds in bags

Choose a sunny location, where there is no strong shading, and the sun shines at least 6 hours a day. Before sowing honeysuckle, the weeds in the future bed are destroyed so that they do not damage the young tender sprouts.

Preparing a place for planting honeysuckle

Next, you need to add compost mixture to the garden bed, level the ground, watering it well.

For each berry, you need a shallow hole (up to 2 cm), which you can make with your finger. Leave at least 10 cm between the holes. Squeeze the seeds from the fruit into the moistened holes: one berry per hole. Sprinkle with a centimeter of earth on top. To prevent the holes from getting lost, highlight them with garden pointers (sticks).

We plant seeds in the ground

The finished bed is closed with polyethylene or covering material. The land is opened for watering once a day. The first watering is carried out with a spray bottle.

If you do not want to do "piece work", you can crush the berries into a glass of water, and stretch a sheet of thin toilet paper over the bed. It needs to be poured with water and seeds. The paper allows the seeds to take hold and be visible immediately.

Sowing seeds with toilet paper

The garden bed with honeysuckle must be fenced off with planks so that the soil does not erode. It is necessary to loosen the ground shallowly, taking care that the seeds do not appear on the surface.

When planting honeysuckle seeds in your garden, pay attention to the weather: showers can erode the soil and damage the planting. If the weather fails, you can arrange a greenhouse over the honeysuckle. He will save from extreme heat and dryness. In dry and hot weather, honeysuckle seedlings need a special irrigation regime.

Frame covered with plastic wrap as a temporary greenhouse

It is worth waiting for shoots no earlier than 2 weeks later. After the sprouts appear, the film is removed, and the weeds are carefully removed.

Throughout the warm season, the seedlings are simply watered and weeded, leaving them before winter. For the cold season, honeysuckle is insulated. In the spring, additional feeding of seedlings is carried out. In the second year, the seedlings need to be cut open, giving another year for rooting in an individual place.

The second variant of seed reproduction of honeysuckle: through "seedlings"

Seeds are harvested in season. Large berries (they can be picked from a bush or purchased on the market) wither in the sun for several days.

Next, the berries must be "released" into a small container with water, making sure that there is no berry pulp left on them, otherwise they will rot and not grow. We drain the water from the container and repeat the washing of the seeds until the seeds are clean. Next, they need to be thoroughly dried and removed to a dark place, not forgetting to sign.

Another way to store honeysuckle seeds until planting season is with a food container in the refrigerator. Pour dry sand into the container, slightly moistening it from a spray bottle every two weeks.

Sowing of honeysuckle is carried out in the fall or spring. Each berry produces 10 or more seedlings. Before planting, the container is transferred from the refrigerator to the light.

A long box up to 15 cm deep and up to 30 cm wide is well suited for seedlings. The secret of good germination is in a special substrate through which small honeysuckle sprouts can easily hatch. The land for sowing is prepared as follows: humus + earth + sand (equal amounts) + half a glass of ash. The primer turns out to be light and does not crack when dry. For disinfection, the earth is baked for 15 minutes in the oven.

Disinfection of soil for seedlings

Before planting, the substrate is well moistened, after which it is necessary to make shallow grooves in it (deep on the phalanx of the finger). We try to keep the maximum possible distance between furrows.

Sowing furrows

We sow the seeds in a row, with a step of 2-3 cm and lightly sprinkle with earth. Immediately after watering, wrap the box with foil so that the seeds are warm and moist. Watch out for the moisture content of the substrate!

Example of sowing seed furrow

We remove the film when shoots appear. Honeysuckle seedlings like well-lit places without a draft. It is impossible to fill in the sprouted honeysuckle, since the roots of delicate seedlings can rot, which will lead to the death of the plants.

The film must be removed when the seeds germinate.

Seedlings are watered and aired, gradually accustoming them to natural conditions. By spring, 3-5 true leaves are formed on the plants.

If the box hibernates in the garden, for the cold season it must be hidden indoors or buried in a wheel tire, covering it from above - so the frosts are not terrible for the shrubs, and the box will be protected from rodents. For shelter, roofing paper, paws of conifers, special covering material, or just an old sheepskin coat are suitable.

Seedlings from seeds - picking and planting in "their" place

In the spring, the sprouts grown from seeds are opened wide, seating them wider. If the cultivation takes place in indoor conditions, then each seedling is deposited in its own glass. It is important to spread the root of the plant well when picking. If we are talking about seedlings grown in the ground, they are simply thinned out, leaving the strongest shoots.

An example of honeysuckle sorted into separate containers

It is worth replanting seedlings to a permanent residence after they have wintered 2 winters. In order to facilitate their first years of life, you need to feed them with complex vitamin and mineral fertilizers. Also, it will be useful to add ash under the root.

Choose a permanent place for seed-grown honeysuckle in the sun, so the berry will be sweeter. To transplant, you need to dig a wide hole deep in the palm, put humus with ash and mineral fertilizers under the root, and water. Then seedlings are planted in the hole with a clod of earth, slightly pressing along the edges. Sprinkle with earth.

On all plantings, the soil must be protected from drying out. Sawdust, humus, spruce branches are suitable for this.

Recommendations for planting honeysuckle

Tips for growing honeysuckle

  1. We recommend planting seedlings in the ground in autumn or spring. Moreover, in the second case, you need to be in time before the onset of sap flow and swelling of the kidneys. Keep in mind that the shrub grows earlier than other shrubs.
  2. Make sure that the roots of the honeysuckle are not exposed: sprinkle them with mulch.

Honeysuckle care in the garden

Video - How to grow honeysuckle from seeds

Nikolay Zhuravlev
Chief Editor

Author of the publication
16.05.2016


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Promising varieties of edible honeysuckle

Edible honeysuckle has more than 200 varieties. They are subdivided according to different indicators:

  • by maturity
  • on crumbling
  • taste
  • yield
  • the size of the berries.

A good example of numerous varieties is the well-known Cinderella, Blue Spindle, Bakcharskaya. Their properties are described in detail, not because they are the best, but these plants are carriers of the defining traits that gardeners are looking for.

Berries of the Blue Spindle edible honeysuckle variety begin to ripen in mid-June, a week earlier than strawberries. Berry weight is about a gram. The variety is self-fertile, pollinated by any, at the same time flowering, bush. The berries do not ripen at the same time, allowing you to feast on the bush for a long period.

Honeysuckle Blue spindle has a weak attachment of the stalk and crumbles, therefore, during fruiting, it is better to put a non-woven material under the bush, which allows the plant to breathe, but is an excellent bedding for fallen berries. The berries are sweet, with a subtle bitterness in the aftertaste. The body accepts the first harvest of summer with gratitude.

Honeysuckle Cinderella passed varietal tests and was registered in the register in 1983.

The bush is distinguished by early fruiting, in the third year.

The bush is low only 0.7 meters, propagated by seedlings, and is very decorative. The yield is impressive, 20 kg / ha, up to three kilograms per bush. The berries are large, black with a bluish bloom. The berries have a strawberry flavor, the skin is soft, the surface is smooth. The bush is resistant to frost and does not succumb to numerous pests. He loves, if his neighbors choose "Amphora" or "Leningrad giant".

Honeysuckle Bakcharskaya is famous for its shatter-resistant and very productive variety. With fine, large up to 1.4 grams, sour-sweet berries. This variety ripens later, but it is resistant to diseases and pests, drought tolerant. The sprawling bush does not thicken, it regulates the growth of green mass by itself.


Description

Honeysuckle edible is a densely branching shrub with a height of 1 to 2 m with small, pale green, oval-elliptical paired leaves.

Honeysuckle buds, as well as in other berry bushes, bloom very early, and flower buds bloom 2-5 days earlier than vegetative ones. The flowers are bisexual, small, yellow, collected in small inflorescences. Each of them has a pistil and stamens. The flowering is extended and long lasting. The flowers are resistant to spring frost.

Lowering the temperature to minus 5-7 ° C does not damage them. Pollinated by insects, mainly bumblebees, flies and bees, which carry pollen from one flower to another. Some varieties are self-fertile and require cross-pollination. One two-chambered berry is formed from two flowers.

Honeysuckle berries edible black, with a strong bluish bloom, reaches a length of 2 cm and a diameter of about 1 cm. The growing season is very short - usually by mid-July, the growth of annual shoots stops.

The biological feature of this culture is its rather slow growth. By the end of the 1st year of life, the seedlings reach only 5-7 cm in height, and by the end of the 3rd year - 40-50 cm. Only by 6-10 years of age the honeysuckle bushes reach their maximum size (1-1.5 m high and diameter of about 1 m). Saplings from cuttings and cuttings at the age of 3-4 years come into fruiting. Seedlings begin to bear fruit at 5-6 years.

The selection of edible honeysuckle began more than 40 years ago at the Pavlovsk experimental station of the VIR near Leningrad by Doctor of Biological Sciences FK Teterev.

At present, its selection is carried out at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia, near Moscow and in other places. Of great interest for gardeners are the varieties: "Start", "Dolphin", "Tomichka", "Pavlovskaya", "Moskovskaya-23", "Blue Bird", "Blue Spindle".

Edible honeysuckle is propagated by sowing seeds, layering, lignified and green cuttings.

When sowing seeds, most of the seedlings are obtained with a good berry taste, but in some plants they are bitter. Seeds are sown in boxes immediately after they are isolated from the berries and covered with humus with a layer of 1 cm.

The boxes are covered with glass and paper, pinned in partial shade right on the garden plot. Some of the seedlings appear in the summer, some after overwintering. Young seedlings dive. They are planted in a permanent place for 3-4 years.

For amateurs, reproduction of honeysuckle by arcuate layering from the best productive bushes with a good berry taste is most suitable.

Honeysuckle very flexible plant, grows well on many soils, but better on loamy and heavy loamy fertilized soil.

Honeysuckle buds very early, so it is best to plant it in the fall from September 25 to October 10. The distance between the rows is 2.5 - 3 m, in a row - 1.5 - 2 m. In collective and private gardens, it is advisable to plant a thickened (0.75 -1 m) plant from a plant. When planting, the root collar is buried in the soil by 2-3 cm.

In the spring, the plants are once huddled, the soil near the bushes is cultivated to a depth of 6 - 8 cm and mulched with humus, peat or manure.

Due to the longevity of the skeletal branches from the moment of planting until the age of 15, honeysuckle does not need to be pruned annually. During this period, it is only necessary to remove broken, diseased and thickening branches from time to time.

The berries of edible honeysuckle ripen unevenly, crumble when over-grown. First, they are collected selectively, and then, when they are massively ripened, they are shaken off onto a film or burlap, spread out under the bush. The berries are tender, not easily transportable. They can be stored in the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days.

Honeysuckle. Growing and care.

This culture appeared in amateur gardens recently, but they became interested in it, since it is early ripening and early-growing, winter-hardy enough can grow on poor soils, with minimal care. Very acidic, too wet and dry places should be avoided.

Honeysuckle berries are similar to blueberries in that they are blue-blue in color and have a strong waxy coating. The juice is dark red with a violet tinge, sweet and sour with a weak aroma. One bush gives 1-2 kg of berries in the 5-6th year after planting. Better to plant under protection, but not in the shade of trees.

Straight branchy shrub up to 2 m tall with brown scaly bark. Leaves are oval and oblong. The flowers are light yellow. The root system of edible honeysuckle is powerful, the bulk is located in a 20 - 40 - centimeter layer of soil. Honeysuckle is a light-loving plant, it tolerates shading, it grows best on soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction.

Honeysuckle is a durable plant and can bear fruit in one place for 15-20 years. The distance between plants when planting is 1-1.5 m, between rows - 2.5 m. The first 5 years it grows slowly.

Landing.

Before planting, 30-60 g of phosphoric (superphosphate or phosphorite flour), 20-30 g of potassium salt (or potassium chloride) and 8-10 kg of organic fertilizers are applied for each square meter. After fertilizing, the soil is dug onto the bayonet of the shovel.

Pits are dug with a diameter of 40-50 cm, a depth of 35-40 cm. After excavation, the pits are 2/3 filled with fertile soil of the upper soil horizon with the addition of fertilizers. On excessively acidic soils, ground limestone or dolomite flour is introduced, 50 g per pit. Pits are dug 2-3 weeks before planting.

Honeysuckle buds very early, so it is best to plant it in the fall from September 25 to October 10. The distance between the rows is 2.5 - 3 m, in a row - 1.5 - 2 m. In collective and private gardens, it is advisable to plant a thickened (0.75 -1 m) plant from a plant. When planting, the root collar is buried in the soil by 2-3 cm.

In the spring, the plants are once huddled, the soil near the bushes is cultivated to a depth of 6 - 8 cm and mulched with humus, peat or manure.

The best planting time is early autumn. The size of the holes is 60x60 cm. The planting depth of the seedling is without deepening, i.e. flush with the soil surface. The planted plants are watered, the soil near them is mulched with hieroglyphs, peat, compost.

Care consists in loosening to a depth of 7 cm, autumn digging - to a depth of 15 cm. Organic fertilizers are applied annually: in the fall 6-8 kg per 1 m, and in early spring they give the South of urea or 15 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied through a year after planting in the fall for digging the soil (15 g of double superphosphate and potassium salt each). On acidic soils, once every 4 years, add lime (200-300 g per 1 m) for the autumn digging of the soil.

In the first years after planting (3-5 years), the honeysuckle is not pruned; later, in the early spring in March, the broken, dried and part of the branches thickening the bush are removed. After 15 years, the oldest branches are cut, but not entirely, but to a strong lateral branch.

The annual growth rate in honeysuckle is usually not shortened, since its kidney awakening is good. Honeysuckle is fast-growing and gives the earliest fruits, before strawberries.

Hardy, although the very tips of the shoots sometimes freeze slightly. Shoots are lignified completely. This is an unpretentious breed, but it grows better in good lighting and on sufficiently fertilized soils. Easily propagated by seeds, green cuttings, layering.

The rest period in honeysuckle is short. In moderately warm autumn, some plants bloom and bear ripe fruits. Begin to bear fruit at 3-4 years of age. The harvest is growing slowly.

Seeds are propagated freshly harvested, without drying, sowing them in boxes filled with such a substrate: sand, turf and humus soil, taken in equal parts. In the summer, the seedlings are watered. In autumn, they are planted in a garden bed at a distance of 5 cm from each other and 10 cm between rows. In spring, only stratified seeds can be sown.

Reproduction.

Gardeners willingly share planting material with each other, often resorting to the well-known method of reproduction of honeysuckle by dividing the bush. For this, the mother bush is divided into several parts depending on the number of shoots. After that, the small roots at the base are separated with the edge of a knife. Separate parts of the bush are planted in the nursery. The soil must be well prepared. After a year, shoots appear at the base and the natural formation of the bush begins.

The plant is 2-3 years old from one place. In amateur gardening, the separated bush is immediately transplanted to permanent places.

Such reproduction is carried out in autumn at the end of September or in early spring, before the start of growth processes. Saplings are dug up in autumn in September and then used for autumn planting or pinned until spring.

Honeysuckle is propagated by green and lignified cuttings.

Green honeysuckle cuttings are harvested with the end of shoot growth (at the end of the third decade of June), cutting the tops 8-12 cm long with 2-3 internodes. The lower pair of leaves is removed, the upper one is left.

Cuttings are planted obliquely in a moistened substrate consisting of 20 cm of sand and peat in a 2: 1 ratio. The air temperature is 25-30 ° С. Placing cuttings 3x7 or 5x7. On the 8-12th day, callus is formed, on the 12th-15th - the roots.

At this time, you should ventilate the greenhouse or nursery, reduce the frequency of watering. In the first decade of September, rooted cuttings are planted in a school or in May in the ground. It is recommended for amateur gardeners to plant cuttings in the ground in the conditions of central Russia in the period from June 15 to July 5.

Dip the green cuttings cut in the morning in a jar of water. After a while, you need to plant them in wet sand in a greenhouse or box. It is desirable that the stalk has 4 buds. Leaves from 2 lower buds are removed with a safety razor or a sharp grafting knife, and from 2 upper ones they are cut in half.

A smooth oblique cut and 2-3 shallow longitudinal cuts from the lower end of the cutting to the base of the second bud are made under the lower bud of the cutting. Prepared cuttings obliquely, at an angle of 30-40 °, are planted in the sand every 2-3 cm in rows and 3-4 cm between rows so that the two lower buds are in the sand, and the two upper ones are above the sand.

After abundant watering, the greenhouse is tightly closed with a frame, and the box with glass or film. In the following days, the cuttings are only sprayed. The optimum temperature for rooting is 25-27 ° C. In cold weather, the boxes are covered with insulation. Under these conditions, roots are formed on the 20th day.

In early August, rooted cuttings are planted in a bed with a placement of 8x8 cm.After watering, the bed is mulched with peat, shaded in hot weather, and with the onset of cold weather, covered with a dry leaf, spruce branches, which are harvested in spring.

After spring loosening, it is useful to add nitroammophoska at the rate of one tablespoon per 1 m. After 2 weeks, the plants are watered with slurry (1 hour per 10 parts of water). By autumn, you can land on a permanent place.

For propagation of honeysuckle by lignified cuttings, cuttings 20-25 cm long are cut at the beginning of winter and stored in a snow pile or sand in the basement. In late April - early May, they are planted at an angle of 45 ° in prepared ridges with a placement of 20x10 cm. Then they are mulched with peat, leaving only the apical bud on the surface.

At the root of the cuttings are 2-3 years, then they are transplanted to a permanent place. Rooting rate no more than 20%. When using stimulants: indolylbutyric acid (0.01%), heteroauxin, the number of rooted cuttings increases significantly.

Lignified cuttings can be rooted in the fall. 4 buds are kept on the handle. They are planted in ridges so that 2-3 buds are underground, and 2 - above the ground, the soil is mulched. Cuttings are covered with spruce branches for the winter. In the spring, the soil is loosened. The rooting period is 2-3 months, the survival rate of cuttings is slightly higher than that of winter ones.

Honeysuckle is also propagated by layering. In this case, mother plants should be planted sparsely enough so that the shoots can be bent in all directions. This work is carried out in the spring before the formation of flowers and leaves.

Method 1: shoots are placed in the grooves, pinned and tied to a peg. Top up with nutritious soil and watered.

Method 2: the shoots are bent down, pinned through 3-4 buds, covered with nutritious soil and watered well.

After the formation of roots, the layers are separated from the mother bush and planted only the next year in a permanent place. This allows for a more powerful root ball to form. The mother plant is used again after 2-3 years to obtain cuttings.

When loosening honeysuckle plants, remember that its root system is superficial and it is important not to damage it. Gardeners - amateurs grow cuttings at the place of their rooting, maintaining the supply of nutrients in the soil with three feeding times for 2 years, timely watering the plants and weeding weeds.

Diseases and pests

Honeysuckle is affected by at least 37 pests - insects, 19 types of fungal diseases and 2 viruses. The most dangerous are: honeysuckle fingerwing, which infects berries, honeysuckle aphids, sucking the juice of young stems and leaves.

There are many pests in common with other plants: pear weevil, grape leafworm. Miners, slimy sawflies, and penny cicadas are rare.

Gardeners - amateurs are recommended to carry out early spring spraying of honeysuckle simultaneously with the treatment of other crops with 2% nitrafen solution

The fight against fungal diseases is reduced to timely pruning and formation of plants that contribute to good lighting of the crowns and their being blown by the wind. Honeysuckle is severely damaged by hares, water rats, birds.

Honeysuckle varieties

Blue spindle... The berries ripen by mid-June. Berries weight 0.9 g. Good taste. Self-fertile, fruitful, pollinated by all varieties of honeysuckle. The disadvantage of the variety: non-simultaneous ripening of berries, shedding of berries is 10%.

Bakcharskaya... Ripening of berries on June 22-25. The yield is average. The berries crumble, taste very good, have gelling properties, are easy to transport, do not wrinkle.

Cinderella... The variety is early, the beginning of berry ripening - June. The yield is average. The berries are elongated, the average weight is 1 g. High palatability. The peculiarity of the variety is the short stature of the bushes. The variety is self-sufficient, pollinated by all varieties.

Also popular are the varieties: Tomichka, Blue Bird, Pitcher, Pavlovskaya, etc.


Watch the video: Plant Northern Piedmont Natives: Changing How We Think About Our Landscapes


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